Google

Tuesday, November 01, 2005

Nursing Care Plan for the Client with Liver Disorders (Hepatitis and Liver Cirrhosis)

Nursing Assessment

1. Assess for history of hemotransfusion, previous contact with person, infected by hepatitis A, resent sexual contact with person, probably infected by hepatitis B or C .
2. Assess for history of previous liver diseases, presence of genetic and metabolic diseases, affecting liver (such as cystic fibrosis, etc.), toxic influence on liver (such as alcohol intake, etc.) , presence of long-term bile obstruction states.
3. Collect information of complaints that brought client to the hospital (jaundice, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, bowel disturbances, fever, appetite changes, neurological changes, changes in color of urine and stool, etc.) .
4. Obtain history of onset and progression of symptoms.
5. Perform complete physical assessment including vital signs, signs of liver damage, jaundice, bowel dysfunction, encephalopathy, ascites, etc.
6. Assess diagnostic tests and procedures for abnormal values.

Nursing Diagnosis

1. Increased risk of dehydration, electrolytes and metabolic disturbances, related to liver damage.
2. Intolerance to certain kinds of foods, related to liver damage.
3. Increased risk of secondary infections due to impaired immune state, related to liver dysfunction.
4. Increased risk of hematological complications, related to liver dysfunction.
5. Increased risk of metabolic and toxic disturbances, related to liver insufficiency.
6. Presence of risk of hemocirculatory complications and portal hypertension (ascites, esophageal varices, etc.) due to impaired liver function.
7. Changes in neurological state (encephalopathy) due to liver insufficiency.
8. Weakness and fatigue, related to diagnosis of hepatitis or liver cirrhosis, alterations in skin integrity.
9. Appetite changes and weight loss due to symptoms of the disease.
10. Anxiety related to the symptoms of disease and fear of the unknown.

Nursing Plan and Interventions

Goals

1. Prevent further infections.
2. Promote adequate nutrition and fluid intake.
3. Prevent avoidable injury, changes in electrolytes and metabolic state of the client.
4. Maintain enteric isolation precautions.
5. Prevent possible hemorrhage and neurological complications.
6. Prevent alteration in skin integrity.
7. Then surgical intervention prescribed, prevent postoperative complications.
8. Relief symptoms of liver damage, weakness and fatigue.
9. Decreased anxiety with increased knowledge of disease, it treatment, way of prevention and follow-up.

Interventions

1. Assess, report , and record signs and symptoms and reactions to treatment.
2. Monitor fluids input and output closely, observe signs of dehydration, secondary infections, neurological disturbances, edemas (ascites), jaundice intensity, skin integrity daily.
3. Provide adequate diet with high proteins, carbohydrates and vitamins (carefully in client with encephalopathy).
4. Observe feces and urine for color and frequency.
5. Administer antibiotics, antiemetics, vitamins A,C, K, steroids and other medications as prescribed, monitor for side effects.
6. Monitor client’s vital signs and signs of possible dehydration closely.
7. Monitor client’s laboratory tests results (CBC, electrolytes, liver enzymes, billirubin levels, serological tests for HAV, HBV, HCV) for abnormal values.
8. Provide prescribed diet, rest and comfort measures.
9. Administer IV therapy and electrolytes replacement as prescribed.
10. Monitor for signs of possible bleeding.
11. Prepare client for paracentesis if required.
12. Provide emotional support to client and his family, explain all procedures to decrease anxiety and to obtain cooperation.
13. Instruct client regarding disease progress, diagnostic procedures, treatment and its complications, home care, daily activities, diet, restrictions and follow-up.

Evaluation

1. Reports increased comfort, decreased anxiety.
2. Reducing of ascites and edema.
3. Reduced weakness and fatigue in client.
4. Maintains stable vital signs, fluid and metabolic balance, nutritional state.
5. Maintain skin integrity.
6. Laboratory tests results shows no abnormalities.
7. Shows no hematological or neurological complications.
8. Demonstration of understanding of disease progress, diagnostic and treatment procedures, prevention, and need for follow-up.

This information has been published by the International Biopharmaceutical Association http://www.ibpassociation.org/ . Please note this information does not give any medical advice.

The project is sponsored by Kriger Research Center - CRO and Training Services ( http://www.kriger.com/ ) , ClinQua CRO (http://www.clinqua.com/ ), Biorole Free Resumes Data Base (http://www.biorole.com/ ) and Altaspera Designs ( http://www.altaspera.com/ )

Start your Clinical Research Career Now:

Clinical Research Associate Program
Data Management Program
Quality Assurance Program
Marketing & Management Program
Clinical Investigator Program
SAS Programming Trainig Program
Recruitment for the Bio Pharmaceutical Industry Program
MedicalTerminology Program

Determine your eligibility
Check availability of in-class sessions in your city

For more information on Clinical Research Career Training and Clinical Trials Services please contact Kriger Research Group International ( http://www.kriger.com/ ) at info@kriger.com or call
(866) 757-9791 (USA and Canada) or
+ 1(416) 630-0038 (Internationally)

Chronic Liver Disease / Cirrhosis - Liver, Hepatic, Biliary ...
Liver Disorders... Virus-Induced Liver Disease / Hepatitis ... Cirrhosis is a progressive liver disease, and damage sustained to the liver is irreversible. ...www.umm.edu/liver/chronic.htm - 26k - Cached - Similar pages[ More results from www.umm.edu ]
Alcoholic Liver Disease
Describes the liver diseases steatosis, hepatitis, and cirrhosis, as well as treatments.cpmcnet.columbia.edu/dept/gi/alcohol.html - 11k - Cached - Similar pages
Common Laboratory Tests in Liver Disease
In some conditions, such as alcoholic hepatitis or shock liver, ... In cirrhosis, the albumin may be decreased (see above) and the gamma-globulin elevated. ...cpmcnet.columbia.edu/dept/gi/labtests.html - 10k - Cached - Similar pages[ More results from cpmcnet.columbia.edu ]
MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Cirrhosis
Cirrhosis is the result of chronic liver disease that causes scarring of the liver ... Common causes of chronic liver disease in the US include hepatitis C ...www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000255.htm - 28k - Cached - Similar pages
MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Hepatic encephalopathy
Hepatic encephalopathy is caused by disorders affecting the liver. These include disorders that reduce liver function (such as cirrhosis or hepatitis) and ...www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000302.htm - 29k - 30 Oct 2005 - Cached - Similar pages
Liver Disorders - Hepatitis, Liver Transplant, and Liver Cirrhosis ...
... transplants and provides treatment for liver disorders, such as hepatitis and cirrhosis. ... UF Doctor's Offices that specialize in liver disorders: ...www.shands.org/find/service/default.asp?ID=240 - 14k - Cached - Similar pages
Symptom: Enlarged liver - WrongDiagnosis.com
Introduction: A swollen liver is the symptom of many possible disorders, ... liver; Chronic Hepatitis C ... Enlarged liver; Cirrhosis of the liver . ...www.wrongdiagnosis.com/sym/enlarged_liver.htm - 31k - Cached - Similar pages
Hepatic Pathology Index
Cirrhosis. Macronodular cirrhosis of liver, gross · Macronodular cirrhosis of liver, gross ... Pigmentary Disorders. Hemosiderosis of liver, microscopic ...www-medlib.med.utah.edu/WebPath/LIVEHTML/LIVERIDX.html - 6k - Cached - Similar pages
Cirrhosis of the liver
Cirrhosis is scarring of the liver that involves the formation of fibrous (scar) tissue ... Hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis) does not cause cirrhosis. ...www.netdoctor.co.uk/diseases/facts/cirrhosisliver.htm - 57k - Cached - Similar pages
Gall Bladder and Liver Disorders in Sickle Cell Disease
Gall Bladder and Liver Disorders in Sickle Cell Disease: a Critical Review ... In sickle cell disease, cirrhosis occurs, and liver transplants are now being ...sickle.bwh.harvard.edu/liver.html - 32k - Cached - Similar pages
Information about jaundice
If there are too many red blood cells retiring for the liver to handle, ... genetic syndromes, hepatitis, cirrhosis, bile duct blockage, other liver ...www.mamashealth.com/liver/ - 15k - 31 Oct 2005 - Cached - Similar pages
Einstein - Common Liver Diseases
Cirrhosis can lead to end-stage liver disease. Autoimmune hepatitis. ... Cholestatic liver disorders. Cholestasis is a reduction or stoppage of bile flow. ...www.einstein.edu/yourhealth/liver/article8559.html - 27k - Cached - Similar pages
Cirrhosis
... and paient education material on digestive and liver disorders, and nutrition. ... Cortisone medicine helps treat autoimmune hepatitis and cirrhosis. ...www.gicare.com/pated/ecdlv14.htm - 18k - 30 Oct 2005 - Cached - Similar pages
A Guide to Commonly Used Liver Tests
Liver biopsy is often needed to confirm certain infiltrative disorders (eg, ... LIVER DISEASES: AUTOIMMUNE CHRONIC HEPATITIS, PRIMARY BILIARY CIRRHOSIS ...www.clevelandclinicmeded.com/diseasemanagement/ gastro/livertests/livertests.htm - 64k - Cached - Similar pages
Amazon.com: The Liver Disorders Sourcebook: Books
Dr. Melissa Palmer's Guide to Hepatitis & Liver Disease: What You Need to Know ... suffer from some type of liver disorder, including cirrhosis, hepatitis, ...www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ tg/detail/-/0737300906?v=glance - 75k - Cached - Similar pages
What is Autoimmune Hepatitis? - Liver Health Information - The ...
Liver biopsy may show mild autoimmune hepatitis, more advanced chronic ... This is most common in patients with advanced cirrhosis on initial liver biopsy. ...www.liverfoundation.org/db/articles/1011 - 19k - Cached - Similar pages
Pregnancy and the Liver - Liver Health Information - The American ...
... and those who have already developed cirrhosis from autoimmune hepatitis may ... In addition, three rare liver disorders may have serious consequences ...www.liverfoundation.org/db/articles/1078 - 26k - Cached - Similar pages[ More results from www.liverfoundation.org ]
THE MERCK MANUAL, Sec. 4, Ch. 40, Alcoholic Liver Disease
Hepatic And Biliary Disorders hyperlink to list of chapters in current section ... The widely accepted fatty liver-alcoholic hepatitis-cirrhosis spectrum is ...www.merck.com/mrkshared/ mmanual/section4/chapter40/40a.jsp - 46k - Cached - Similar pages
THE MERCK MANUAL--SECOND HOME EDITION, Cirrhosis in Ch. 136, Fatty ...
Fatty Liver, Cirrhosis, and Related Disorders ... fat accumulation (fatty liver), inflammation (alcoholic hepatitis), and severe scarring (cirrhosis). ...www.merck.com/mmhe/sec10/ch136/ch136c.html - 66k - Cached - Similar pages
Liver Disorder, Liver Cirrhosis, Liver Hepatitis, Alcoholic Liver ...
Liver Disorder, Liver Cirrhosis, Liver Hepatitis, Alcoholic Liver Diseases, Herbal Remedies, Liver Care, Dietary Supplement.www.ayurvediccure.com/liver_disorder.htm - 80k - Cached - Similar pages
Open Directory - Health: Conditions and Diseases: Digestive ...
Autoimmune Hepatitis - Discusses liver function, causes of this condition, ... on this disease as well as liver disease, cirrhosis, rebetron and interferon. ...dmoz.org/Health/Conditions_and_Diseases/ Digestive_Disorders/Liver/Hepatitis/ - 14k - Cached - Similar pages
Common Characteristics of Liver Disease
hepatitis; alcoholic liver disease; primary biliary cirrhosis; drug effects ... of the hepatic vein. Ascites can also be caused by non-liver disorders. ...medicalcenter.osu.edu/.../otherhealthtopics/ LiverBiliaryPancreaticDis4540/CommonCharacteristicsofLi4546/ - 37k - Cached - Similar pages
Liver, Biliary, and Pancreatic Disorders Glossary
autoimmune hepatitis - liver disease caused when the body's immune system destroys ... Bile becomes trapped in the liver, causing jaundice and cirrhosis. ...medicalcenter.osu.edu/.../otherhealthtopics/ LiverBiliaryPancreaticDis4540/LiverBiliaryandPancreatic4573/ - 52k - Cached - Similar pages
Cirrhosis of the Liver
It can result from direct injury to the liver cells (ie, hepatitis) or from indirect ... on cirrhosis, hepatitis, and other disorders affecting the liver. ...www.gastro.org/wmspage.cfm?parm1=681 - 23k - Cached - Similar pages
Liver Health Autoimmune Liver Disorders: Autoimmune Hepatitis (AIH ...
Liver transplantation for end-stage liver cirrhosis. Conclusion. Among the chronic autoimmune liver disorders, the autoimmune hepatitis is the only disease ...nydailynews.healthology.com/nydailynews/15996.htm - 86k - Cached - Similar pages
[PDF] What is Cirrhosis?
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - View as HTMLdisorders, hepatitis B, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease ... People with hepatitis C who develop cirrhosis are at. risk for liver cancer. ...www.hcvadvocate.org/hepatitis/ factsheets_pdf/cirrhosis.pdf - Similar pages
C-Health : Liver Disorders
Different types of liver disorders include hepatitis, cirrhosis, liver tumours, and liver abscess (collection of pus), just to name a few. ...chealth.canoe.ca/condition_info_details. asp?disease_id=176&rot=4&dowhat=accept_disclaimer - 74k - Cached - Similar pages
Hepatitis, A,B,C, Liver Disorders Forum - Hepatitis A Information
Hepatitis A, Hepatitis A Information, Hepatitis, A,B,C, Liver Disorders Forum , health ... No new posts, Need Information On Symptoms of Cirrhosis Stages ...ehealthforum.com/health/hepatitis_c.html - 93k - 31 Oct 2005 - Cached - Similar pages
, information, health forums, medical questions, medical ...
Hepatitis, A,B,C, Liver Disorders Cirrhosis When To Call A Professional Hepatitis, A,B,C, Liver Disorders Cirrhosis Information Hepatitis, A,B,C, Liver ...ehealthforum.com/health/generate_sitemap.php?f_id=36 - 17k - Cached - Similar pages[ More results from ehealthforum.com ]
The Health Library — Digestive System
NAFLD/NASH (Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/ Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis):ALF ... Vascular Disorders of the Liver. Budd-Chiari Syndrome:Merck Manual ...healthlibrary.stanford.edu/resources/ internet/bodysystems/gi_liver.html - 78k - 31 Oct 2005 - Cached - Similar pages
Dealing with Liver Disease
... including hepatitis, cirrhosis, liver disorders in children, ... If it does develop, however, cirrhosis and primary cancer of the liver can be long-term ...www.healthsquare.com/fgpd/fg4ch20.htm - 52k - 30 Oct 2005 - Cached - Similar pages
Liver Cirrhosis – Medical information regarding this liver disease ...
Learn about cirrhosis of the liver; including causes, symptoms, ... Hepatitis B and C are the most common viral liver diseases associated with cirrhosis. ...www.medicinenet.com/cirrhosis/article.htm - 50k - 30 Oct 2005 - Cached - Similar pages
Live Protein Therapy in the Management of Liver Disease
Hepatitis and cirrhosis are particularly common liver disorders that are part of the degenerative cascade of liver disease that starts with inflammation and ...www.tldp.com/issue/11_00/protein.htm - 22k - Cached - Similar pages
Loyola Univ. Health Sys. - Liver Disorders - Virus-Induced Liver ...
Hepatitis B can lead to chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, liver cancer, liver ... viral hepatitis; heavy alcohol consumption; autoimmune disorder (when the body ...www.luhs.org/health/topics/liver/virus.htm - 31k - 30 Oct 2005 - Cached - Similar pages
Loyola Univ. Health Sys. - Liver Disorders - Common ...
hepatitis; alcoholic liver disease; primary biliary cirrhosis ... Ascites can also be caused by non-liver disorders. What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? ...www.luhs.org/health/topics/liver/common.htm - 22k - Cached - Similar pages
Liver Disease
Overview of liver diseases, including hepatitis, cirrhosis. Links to liver-related lab tests. ... Hemochromatosis is the most common genetic liver disorder. ...www.labtestsonline.org/understanding/ conditions/liver_disease-2.html - 45k - Cached - Similar pages
Cirrhosis
Cirrhosis is the result of chronic that causes scarring of the liver (fibrosis ... Common causes of chronic liver disease in the US include hepatitis C ...adam.about.com/encyclopedia/000255.htm - 21k - Cached - Similar pages
Shaklee.com Health Sciences
Cirrhosis is one of the most serious of all liver diseases. ... Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver. Hepatitis can result from chronic alcohol abuse, ...content.nhiondemand.com/ shk/HC1.asp?objID=100233&ctype=hc - 27k - Cached - Similar pages
Abdominal Pain and Liver Disease/Hepatitis
Abdominal pain and/or pain over the liver (known as right upper quadrant ... In contrast to hepatitis B, cirrhosis is typically present in all cases of ...liverdisease.com/abdominalpain_hepatitis.html - 15k - Cached - Similar pages
Hepatitis - DEFINITION, DESCRIPTION, CAUSES, SYMPTOMS, DIAGNOSIS ...
Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. At least six forms of hepatitis are now ... Cirrhosis:: A liver disorder caused by scarring of liver tissue. ...www.faqs.org/health/Sick-V2/Hepatitis.html - 19k - Cached - Similar pages
autoimmune hepatitis CAH
All of these chronic liver disorders finally lead to cirrhosis of the liver. ... Among the chronic autoimmune liver disorders, the autoimmune hepatitis is ...home3.inet.tele.dk/omni/autoimmune.html - 39k - 31 Oct 2005 - Cached - Similar pages
Liver - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Medical terms related to the liver often start in hepato- or hepatic from the Greek word for ... Cirrhosis is the formation of fibrous tissue in the liver, ...en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liver - 40k - 30 Oct 2005 - Cached - Similar pages
HepNet - The Liver in Disease
Manifestations include liver disease (including fulminant hepatitis, ... Cirrhosis. Cirrhosis is the common endpoint of many chronic liver diseases, ...www.hepnet.com/liver/disease.html - 33k - Cached - Similar pages
Liver Diseases
Liver disorders. This series of patient oriented documents on the subject of ... bmj.com collected resources : liver, including hepatitis and cirrhosis ...omni.ac.uk/browse/mesh/D008107.html - 28k - 30 Oct 2005 - Cached - Similar pages
How Biotherapy Clinic can help people with Liver Cirrhosis
Liver Regeneration Kit naturally helps sufferers of chronic Hepatitis, alcoholic liver disorders, early Cirrhosis, bloating and gas, memory loss, ...www.biotherapy-clinic.com/CLD_Liver_Cirrhosis.html - 57k - Cached - Similar pages
HealthBoards - Liver Disorders
View Full Version : Liver Disorders ... ELEVATED LIVER ENZYMES (BILIRUBIN) · Fatty Liver or Cirrhosis + Dilatation of bile duct? Fatty liver and cirrohsis ...www.healthboards.com/boards/archive/index.php/f-79.html - 20k - Cached - Similar pages
British Liver Trust
If the liver function fails this is known as decompensated cirrhosis and ... long term infection with hepatitis B and C viruses, inherited liver disorders ...www.britishlivertrust.org.uk/content/liver/about.asp - 45k - 30 Oct 2005 - Cached - Similar pages
Digestive System Diseases
Biliary Atresia and Kasai Procedure - Children's Liver Assoc. Discovery May Dramatically Reduce ... IFFGD - Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders Index ...www.mic.ki.se/Diseases/C06.html - 101k - 30 Oct 2005 - Cached - Similar pages
OHSU Health - Common Characteristics of Liver Disease
Liver, Biliary, and Pancreatic Disorders Home Page ... hepatitis; alcoholic liver disease; primary biliary cirrhosis; drug effects; hormonal changes during ...www.ohsuhealth.com/htaz/liver/ common_characteristics_of_liver_disease.cfm - 24k - Cached - Similar pages

http://clinicaltrialsuniversallinks.blogspot.com/
http://clinicaltrialsearthlinks.blogspot.com/
http://clinicaltrialslifelinks.blogspot.com/
http://clinicaltrialsvialinks.blogspot.com/
http://clinicaltrialscalllinks.blogspot.com/
http://clinicaltrialsrevolutionlinks.blogspot.com/
http://clinicaltrialsresourceslinks.blogspot.com/
http://freshclinicaltrialscenturylinks.blogspot.com/
http://clinicaltrialseditionlinks.blogspot.com/
http://clinicaltrialsissueslinks.blogspot.com/
http://clinicaltrialsgloballinks.blogspot.com/
http://freshclinicaltrialsprogresslinks.blogspot.com/
http://clinicaltrialsinsightlinks.blogspot.com/
http://clinicaltrialsauditorlinks.blogspot.com/
http://clinicaltrialslinksreviewer.blogspot.com/
http://systemiclupuserythematosisreview.blogspot.com/
http://sclerodermaexaminer.blogspot.com/
http://sjogrenssyndromeaspects.blogspot.com/
http://mixedconnectivetissuediseaseaspects.blogspot.com/
http://vasculitisreview.blogspot.com/